Artificial Intelligence development (AI development) is a science and technology of creating different intellectual machines, especially intellectual software. Another definition, provided by Wikipedia, states that it is a property of intelligent systems to function creatively (which was traditionally considered to be prerogatives of a person).
Computer sciences investigate the AI development problems from the point of view of designing of expert systems and knowledge bases. An expert system is a computer system that can partially substitute an expert or specialist when solving problematic situations. Knowledge bases are a collection of data and inference rules, which allow for a logical conclusion and intelligent information processing.
The main principle of the AI application operation is the possibility to make decisions. In order to make a choice when making decisions, a system should influence the objects with the AI help. Furthermore, such an influence can be made in the form of “AI broadcast” (when AI application makes a decision, the decision is broadcast to all the objects) or “object calls” the objects call the system every time they need to “think” or renew).
Today there are a lot of different AI systems that are widely used on the Internet: search engines that contain the intelligence features and are capable to find and display the necessary information in a matter of seconds; individualized search; voice user interfaces; image and handwriting recognition; web site guides; intellectual sensors that are capable of warning about a robbery or fire; etc.
At present, the major problems, which are solved within the AI framework, include the following: development of expert systems, solution of search problems (in which the exhaustive search is theoretically impossible), modeling of biological forms, and pattern recognition. All the AI algorithms are mainly designed for their integration into other software that will help to create programs, which will flexibly match all the requirements and habits of the user.
In order to solve the AI problems, two specific programming languages Prolog and LISP were created as far back as the beginning of 1970s. Despite this, Ruby and its framework Rails are nowadays considered to be one of the best languages for development of AI applications: elegant code, great possibilities, huge friendly community, more experienced developers, more advanced tools, higher security level, abundance of free solutions, and much more. The number of developers is, of course, lower, but this adds a flavor of elitism.
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